Protocol Enhancement Project: Reference page for Critical Appraisal Teams 
Statements should include a brief summary of the supporting evidence including, where possible:
Table 1: Strength of the finding (Health Gain
beneficial - effectiveness clearly demonstrated (1)
likely to be beneficial - effectiveness not so firmly established (2)
trade-off between beneficial and adverse effects - effects weighed according to individual circumstances(3)
unknown - insufficient/inadequate for recommendation (4)
unlikely to be beneficial - ineffectiveness is not as clearly demonstrated as for 6 (5)
likely to be ineffective or harmful - ineffectiveness or harm clearly demonstrated (6)
(adapted from Enkin M, Kierse MJNC, Renfrew M and Neilson J. A guide to effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995)
Evidence should be cited:
Table 2: Guidance on Vancouver System
Standard periodical article
You C H, Lee K Y, Chey R Y, Menguy R. Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting - Gastroenterology 1980; 79: 311-4.
(NB List all authors when six or less; when seven or more, list only first three and add et al)
Book or monograph
Eisen H N. Immunology: an introduction to molecular and cellular principles of the immune response. 5th ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1974: 406.
DuPont B. Bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immuno-deficiency with an unrelated MLC compatible donor. In: White H J, Smith R, eds. Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Experimental Hematology. Houston: International Society for Experimental Hematology, 1974:44-6.
Table 3: Type of evidence
Type I evidence - at least one good systematic review (including at least one randomised controlled trial).
Type II evidence - at least one good randomised controlled trial
Type III evidence - well designed other trials
Type IV evidence - well designed non-experimental studies
Type V evidence - expert opinion
|The Statements||The Evidence|
|1.8c. Proactive telephone
counselling of known smokers for smoking cessation is likely to have a small positive
effect (odds ratio at 12 to 18 months follow up 1.20 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.37])i.
(Health gain notation - 2 "likely to be beneficial")
|i. Liechtenstein E,
Glasgow RE, Lando HA, Ossip-Klein DJ. Telephone counseling for smoking cessation:
rationales and meta-analytic review of the evidence. Health Education Research1996;11:243-57
(Type I evidence meta-analysis of systematic review of 13 randomised controlled trials, nine included in the final pooled odds ratio after testing for homogeneity)