Health Evidence Bulletins - Wales: Questions to
assist with the critical appraisal of an observational study eg cohort, cross-sectional,
longitudinal, case-control. (Type IV evidence)
Sources used: Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP, Anglia and Oxford RHA) questions and Polgar A, Thomas SA. Chapter 22. Critical evaluation of published research in Introduction to research in the health sciences. 3rd edition. Melbourne: Churchill Livingstone, 1995.
A/ What is this paper about?
|1. Is the study relevant to the needs of the Project?|
|2. Does the paper address a
clearly focused issue?
Are the aims of the investigation clearly stated?
B/ Do I trust it?
|3. Have the authors reflected
the current state of knowledge according to an unbiased review of the literature?
|4. Is the choice of study method appropriate?|
|5. Is the population studied
Is an appropriate control group used?
|6. Is confounding and bias
|7. Was Follow up for long
|8. Was Dose Response demonstrated?|
C/ What did they find?
|9. Are tables/graphs adequately labelled and understandable?|
|10. Are you confident with the authors' choice and use of statistical methods, if employed?|
|11. What are the results of
this piece of research?
Are the authors' conclusions adequately supported by the information cited?
D/ Are the results relevant locally?
|12. Can the results be applied
to the local situation?
Consider differences between the local and study populations (eg cultural, geographical, ethical) which could affect the relevance of the study.
|13. Were all important outcomes/results considered?|
|14. Accept for further use as Type IV evidence?||Refer to Team Leader|
Draft Statement (if appropriate):
(Remember to include the relevant target group (age range, sex etc.); the measured outcomes/benefits with quantitative information if available; and the health gain notation)