Health Evidence Bulletins - Wales: Reference page for Critical Appraisal Teams
Statements should include a brief summary of the supporting evidence including, where possible:
Caveats should include any potential source of bias or other concerns about the quality and/or generalisability of the study.
Evidence should be cited:
Guidance on Vancouver System
Standard periodical article:
You C H, Lee K Y, Chey R Y, Menguy R. Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterology 1980; 79: 311-4.
(NB List all authors when six or less; when seven or more, list only first three and add et al)
Book or monograph:
Eisen H N. Immunology: an introduction to molecular and cellular principles of the immune response. 5th ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1974: 406.
DuPont B. Bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immuno-deficiency with an unrelated MLC compatible donor. In: White H J, Smith R, eds. Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Experimental Hematology. Houston: International Society for Experimental Hematology, 1974:44-6.
World Wide Web page
High blood pressure in pregnancy [online]. 2001 [cited 2002 Oct 21]. Available from: URL: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/hbp_preg.htm
(Author/editor (surname initials). Title [online]. Year [cited year month day]. Available from: URL:)
Type of evidence
Type I evidence - at least one good systematic review (including at least one randomised controlled trial).
Type II evidence - at least one good randomised controlled trial
Type III evidence - well designed other trials
Type IV evidence - well designed non-experimental studies
Type V evidence - expert opinion
|The Statements||The Evidence|
|1.25g. Standard self-help materials may increase quit rates compared to no intervention, but the effect is likely to be small. In 11 trials of self-help compared to no intervention there was a pooled effect that just reached statistical significance (odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.45). No evidence was found that self-help interventions had an additional benefit when used alongside other interventions such as advice from a health care professional or nicotine replacement therapyi.||i.
Lancaster T, Stead LF. Self-help interventions for smoking cessation.
(Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2003. Oxford: Update
Software. (most recent update 11 April 2002)
http://www.update-software.com/abstracts/ab001118.htm [accessed 15.10.03]
(Type I evidence - systematic review, literature search to March 2002, of 51 trials)